TERMINOLOGY

Please look at our glossary, become familiar with our terminology, and discover the key points of our project. This glossary was developed by a multidisciplinary team of linguists, nutritionists, and specialists in anthropology, literature, philosophy and psychiatry.

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CITY OF THE SUN - This classic utopian novel, originally titled Civitas Solis Poetica, was written by Tommaso Campanella (1568-1639), a sea captain from Genoa, in 1602. In the book, which proposes an ideal republic, a Genoese sea captain describes in a dialogue a humanistic and scientific society that he claims to have seen in his travels. This city on the island of Taprobane in the South Seas is ruled by a virtuous monarch, the Sole, assisted by three lieutenants: Power, Wisdom, and Love. Here the all-powerful state supersedes the individual and is technologically advanced; there are even flying machines.

Scientific knowledge being of paramount importance, one third of the ruling body of the city is made up of scientists. This scientific knowledge is projected to the citizens by means of seven concentric walls in the circular city, and at the center stands the Solarian temple with seven candles named for the planets.

All property is held in common, all work happily for the common good, and marriage is for reproduction in the interest of the state, not for love, the young being supervised to assure that the republic's interests come first. The Ministry of Love requires that young persons copulate between the ages of 19 and 21, but with the permission of the First Master of Reproduction young men may copulate with older, younger, or pregnant women since they are unlikely to bear children. Sodomy is condemned, and if repeated often the sodomist is executed. Children live in communal residences after being weaned at the age of two, and they study the sciences at least four hours every day. Women have equal rights with men, including service in the military, defense being necessary because there are four different and sometimes hostile states on the island. Resembling in many ways Francis Bacon's New Atlantis, Johann Andreae's Christianopolitanae, and Thomas More's Utopia, Campanella's The City of the Sun played a major role in keeping the utopian vision alive in Europe in the centuries that followed.

in Morris, James M. & Andrea L. Kross (2009), The A to Z of Utopianism, UK:
The Scarecrow Press.
COCKAYGNE, LAND OF - During the Middle Ages and after, a popular myth stretching back to Hesiod's Golden Age of Kronos and beyond told of an ancient time of happiness that existed in the Land of Cockaygne, "cockaygne" meaning "small cakes." It was very popular among the lower classes burdened by their hard life. Cockaygne literature and myth told of a land of plenty in food and drink where the peaceful peasants never had to work and lived in perfect health unrestrained by traditional customs and laws. In Cockaygne, there was no private property because it was a classless society where social justice reigned at all times. Although not a true utopia, Cockaygne represented a popular dream world of physical pleasure for the medieval peasants.
It lived on in the popular mind of the socially downtrodden, both then and in the centuries to come, and fed into later utopian literature.

in Morris, James M. & Andrea L. Kross (2009), The A to Z of Utopianism, UK:
The Scarecrow Press.